Organization Case Study

 

    Organization Diagnosis and Intervention Plan

January 29th, 2017

 

Abstract

Anonymous, Incorporated is a small team doing specialized work.  A Group Diagnostic Model is useful for a team or organization of this size and offers the opportunity for an Organization Development Consultant to assess areas where improvement may be useful.  Team surveys and interviews provided data which made assessments of the Anonymous, Incorpororated team’s successes and areas of needed improvement.  Two interventions will be used to implement effective change in areas of communication, clarity of goals and values, and improved technology.  Further inquiry is recommended regarding the team’s lack of any conflict identification or resolution strategy, with the acknowledgement that the Anonymous, Incoporated team is made of individuals who are extremely satisfied with their job.

Anonymous, Incorporated

Background on Case Study Organization

Anonymous, Incorporated is the North American distributor team for Anonymous S.A., the parent company in Belgium.  Anonymous is a billiard cloth company that also sells billiard balls and the specific billiard table.  The North American distributor team consists of 8 people.  The Fusion table sales manager works from home and the rest of the team works in the offices or U.S. warehouse.  Anonymous, Incorporated, the North American distributor team, is responsible for distributing products all over the United States and Canada and keeps inventory of the product in the US warehouse purchased from the parent company in Europe.

The Group Level Diagnosis Model incorporates four major elements of input; technology, structure, management processes, and human resources systems (Cummings, 2014).  Anonymous, Incorporated uses technology to communicate in the form of email and use of the website was cited by one team member as a great use of technology for the team.  The structure of the team is made of 8 individuals; the President, two sales managers, two accounting personnel, two warehouse personnel, and one office assistant. Management processes such as guidance and performance feedback were cited as being done on a consistent basis in conversations with the President.  The human resource systems include rewards and performance appraisals and come in the form of bonuses and direct feedback from the President.

Team roles are well defined and clearly identified.  Each team member appears to have clarity on his or her role description and each role requires specific skill sets and knowledge.  Regarding Performance Norms and Interpersonal Relations, team members cite excellence in customer service and respect as top priorities of the team and the need for more communication amongst the team as an improvement that could be made to improve the team structure.

Performance and quality of life are the two dimensions in team effectiveness.  Hard measurements such as productivity, the group’s ability to control or reduce costs, and improve quality need further inquiry.  The group’s quality of life is high.  Each participant gave the same answer of extremely satisfied to the inquiry of job satisfaction.  Also, team members feel the organization is ethical and has integrity and stated things about the organization that make them happy are aspects such as a small team, feeling like a family, and the ability to make decisions and have some autonomy.

Group members receive feedback on the organization’s goals and productivity on a consistent basis, from the President, through individual conversations.

Consultant’s  Diagnosis

Organization Issues

Technology is used in the form of e-mail for communication amongst the team and could be better utilized to improve communication.  Though the team is unable to be in the same location consistently, technology could be used to hold meetings and increase communication and cohesiveness which were cited by the team as top concerns.

There are no apparent structural issues.

Further inquiry into the way team conflict is dealt with is recommended based on input.  There are not currently systems in place that allow for or encourage any issues or problems with the team to be resolved.  The team members are clearly very satisfied with their jobs, which is the reason further inquiry is recommended to assess whether any changes are needed regarding the fact that conflict appears to be largely ignored amongst group members rather than acknowledged and addressed.

Communication could be improved amongst the team.  Group members reported that more communication, clear communication, and respectful styles of communication would improve the productivity of the group as well as the team dynamic.

Group goals and core values are not understood amongst all team members and there is a lack of alignment in both areas amongst team members.  Clearly stated and understood goals and core values are needed for the group.

Case Study Problem Statement

The Anonymous, Incorporated North American distributor team work together in an effective manner.  Each team member knows his or her role and completes the necessary requirements of that role in a manner that contributes to a progressive and positive outcome for the company.  Clear, open, and positive communication is not present and needs improvement.  Further inquiry into whether the lack of a system for conflict resolution should be implemented, as there is currently not an environment where team conflicts are acknowledged or addressed.  Use of available technology could be more progressive for team communication, efficiency, and clarity.  The team does not have a clear and shared understanding of goals or core values.

Effectiveness Criteria

Research shows that effective communication within a virtual or divided team is necessary and an important aspect of partially or fully divided teams (Morgan, Paucar, & Wright, 2014).  Cohesiveness and relationships where trust and connection is present are shown by research to be the result of various methods of communication on teams that are not one hundred percent collocated.

Conflict in teams can be detrimental or can have a positive effect on the team (Bradley, Anderson, Baur, & Klotz, 2015).  High stakes teams such as those where members operate interdependently like the Anonymous, Incorporated team have been shown by research to see positive results stem from dealing with conflict and implementing systems that address it.  Ignoring conflict in teams can result in detrimental outcomes for the goals and mission of the team and organization due to unspoken tension and lack of trust and cohesiveness.

Knowledge sharing, trust, satisfaction, and performance where shown to increase amongst teams that received training in online technologies, according to research studies (Wright, 2015).  The Anonymous, Incorporated team could benefit from online technology training to improve communication amongst the team as well as with the parent company which is in Belgium.

Research by the University of Connecticut School of Business and University of Coimbra, Portugal School of Psychology and Education shows that relationships are stronger when goal clarity and commitment is high and lower levels of negatively affective undertones in teams results in more innovative teams (Peralta, Lopes, Gilson, Lorenca & Pais, 2014).  The research showed teams’ reputations and innovative processes were weakened when there were negative undertones and conversely, team performance is stronger overall when goals are clear and commitment is high.

Research from the University of North Carolina shows varied results regarding conflict on teams where some team members perceive conflict and the other members do not (Sinha, Greer, & Edwards).  In some cases research shows this can cause problems whereas another study conducted in the research resulted in the opposite finding.  The Anonymous, Incorporated team members are all extremely satisfied with their jobs so this subject calls for further inquiry to assess whether any conflict resolution system would improve conditions and should be implemented.

Case Study Purpose Statement

The purpose of this case study group level diagnosis is to identify data that may be the cause for lacking communication and less than optimal use of technology, and develop research questions that may help identify whether a re-engineering of conflict resolution systems or approach is necessary.

Case Study Diagnostic Research Questions

  1. Where are the communication strategies failing, specifically?
  2. What is the cause of the poor communication?
  3. Does the lack of acknowledging and addressing conflict among team members have detrimental effects on team cohesiveness?
  4. What are the predominant ongoing conflicts related to, amongst the team?
  5. Would weekly virtual meetings be welcomed by the team?

Research Methodology

Causal variables were identified with a lack of open and clear communication at the top of the list in terms of priority and quantifying based on team members’ input.  The absence of a conflict identification or resolution strategy, no consistency in understanding of team goals and values, and a lack of progress in the use of technology due to fear of change are causal variables also identified through the use of anonymous surveys and one on one interviews.  Surveys offer the opportunity for team members to provide honest input and feedback anonymously so clear and realistic data is likely to be collected.  A through survey of 20 questions with open ended answers will be useful for the Anonymous, Incorporated team to be able to provide a clear picture of where communication is lacking and identify patterns and trends in mindset and beliefs amongst team members with no fear of being identified by their team members or President.  This offers the opportunity for potentially wonderful outcome based on honest feedback and a realistic understanding of the team’s needs from within.  This strategy will empower the Anonymous, Incorporated team to improve on their already connected, successful team dynamic.  The team will be able to identify where communication improvement is needed and potentially useful.  Interviews with team members interested and available are useful for follow up to make further inquiry into areas that call for more data to be collected.  Identification of potential uses of technology that can help improve communication will be identified through open ended anonymous survey questions.

Organization Interventions

Due to the priority of problems discovered, with a lack of clear, open, and positive communication, I recommend a Process Intervention with my role as Organization Development Consultant to be helping the group assess their human processes with a focus on communication (Cummings, 2014).  The goal of a Process Intervention is to help a group help themselves.  The team at Anonymous, Incorporated are doing well and are successful as well as satisfied so empowering them to help themselves assess what may be lacking regarding communication and help themselves to find the improvement will achieve potentially long term change.  The Johari Window is one type of Process Intervention I recommend.  The Anonymous, Incorporated team is relatively small having 8 members and using the Johari Window intervention will assist each individual team member to better understand his or herself and identify each of the following based on the four quandrants of the Johari Window: issues know to self, issues known to self and others, issues know to others but not self, and issues unknown to self and others.  This will be the foundation on which we will build the ability to assess where the communication is lacking and why, as well as be able to improve communication.

I also recommend using the team building checklist for the group intervention to help quantify the areas where team members believe there are problems and help to build solutions.

My role as Organization Development Consultant will be to facilitate the interventions and to empower the team to assess themselves and identify and implement the solutions they discover that will best suit their needs.

Diagnosis Organization’s Readiness for Change

The team members of Anonymous, Incorporated are happy with leadership and having a relationship where consistent feedback is provided as well as a leader who values his team and makes that known through actions and individual interactions.  Individuals provided information that indicates they are flexible and open to change while some team members stated that they felt other team members were not ready for change, specifically in relation to utilizing progressive technology to create better communication and improve the team’s performance.

The strong leadership and individual relationships where each team member fills a specific and necessary role appears to have created an environment where team members are open to change and if encouraged by the President all would likely embrace change in areas such as technology and communication strategies.

Though the survey was taken anonymously by team members, there were some that indicated potential resistance to change by one or two team members, specifically related to technology.  The overriding positive attitude by most team members may be adequate to encourage the one or two team members who are resistant and support them in learning about technology and becoming comfortable utilizing new technology so that the resistance is removed once it is understood and the benefits have begun be experienced.

Three lessons learned.

  1. The process of this survey of team members of Anonymous, Incorporated provided insight that conflict may be present amongst team members, but may not require a strategy to acknowledge and resolve the conflict. Members of the Anonymous, Incorporated team identified conflict is present while conveying 100 percent are extremely satisfied with their job.  Conflict does not always mean the team is not successful or that team members are not happy with the job circumstances.
  2. Communication needs vary and this team, though extremely satisfied with their jobs and the organization, feel they have need of improved communication. Some members of this team feel there is poor communication while others stated communication is optimal, and others felt communication is in need of some improvement.  This variation of assessment of quality of communication is an indicator of the need for team members to better understand the needs of each other and work to find a way to make improvements that better serve the team, as a whole.
  3. The lack of consistency amongst team members in identifying and sharing core values and lack of clarity of what goals the team has while maintaining an extremely satisfied status within 100 percent of participants provides an interesting insight and indications for further inquiry into the connection between the two. As studies show in the book Tribal Leadership, having clear and purposeful culture through shared core values is an important key to happiness on a team (Logan, King, & Fischer-Wright, 2008).  The team of Anonymous, Incorporated is made of individuals of specialized skills who each appear to be clear on their specific job and are happy with their jobs while not having clearly identified core values and goals.  Further inquiry into whether a team of people who are specialists at their jobs and are valued by the organization and surrounded by other specialists can be fulfilled without the need for clearly identified core values or goals.

 

References

 

Cummings, T & Worley, C. (2014). Organizational development & change (10 ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning

Logan, D., King, J. P., & Fischer-Wright, H. (2008). Tribal leadership: Leveraging natural groups to build a thriving organization. New York: Collins.

Peralta, C. F., Lopes, P. N., Gilson, L. L., Lourenco, P. R., & Pais, L. (2014). Innovation processes and team effectiveness: The role of goal clarity and commitment, and team affective tone. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 88(1), 80-107. doi:10.1111/joop.12079

Morgan, L., Paucar-Caceres, A., & Wright, G. (2014). Leading Effective Global Virtual Teams: The Consequences of Methods of Communication. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 27(6), 607-624. doi:10.1007/s11213-014-9315-2

Sinha, R., Janardhanan, N. S., Greer, L. L., Conlon, D. E., & Edwards, J. R. (2016). Skewed task conflicts in teams: What happens when a few members see more conflict than the rest? Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(7), 1045-1055. doi:10.1037/apl0000059

Wright, S. L. (2015, October 1). Examining the Impact of Collaboration Technology Training Support on Virtual Team Collaboration Effectiveness. Retrieved January 18, 2017, from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED564624

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Organization Diagnosis and Intervention Plan

 

Anonymous, Incorporated

Cryshtal Avera

MGMT 5325

Organizational Development and Change

Dr. Tim Parker

 

January 29th, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

Anonymous, Incorporated is a small team doing specialized work.  A Group Diagnostic Model is useful for a team or organization of this size and offers the opportunity for an Organization Development Consultant to assess areas where improvement may be useful.  Team surveys and interviews provided data which made assessments of the Anonymous, Incorpororated team’s successes and areas of needed improvement.  Two interventions will be used to implement effective change in areas of communication, clarity of goals and values, and improved technology.  Further inquiry is recommended regarding the team’s lack of any conflict identification or resolution strategy, with the acknowledgement that the Anonymous, Incoporated team is made of individuals who are extremely satisfied with their job.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anonymous, Incorporated

Background on Case Study Organization

Anonymous, Incorporated is the North American distributor team for Anonymous S.A., the parent company in Belgium.  Anonymous is a billiard cloth company that also sells billiard balls and the specific billiard table.  The North American distributor team consists of 8 people.  The Fusion table sales manager works from home and the rest of the team works in the offices or U.S. warehouse.  Anonymous, Incorporated, the North American distributor team, is responsible for distributing products all over the United States and Canada and keeps inventory of the product in the US warehouse purchased from the parent company in Europe.

The Group Level Diagnosis Model incorporates four major elements of input; technology, structure, management processes, and human resources systems (Cummings, 2014).  Anonymous, Incorporated uses technology to communicate in the form of email and use of the website was cited by one team member as a great use of technology for the team.  The structure of the team is made of 8 individuals; the President, two sales managers, two accounting personnel, two warehouse personnel, and one office assistant. Management processes such as guidance and performance feedback were cited as being done on a consistent basis in conversations with the President.  The human resource systems include rewards and performance appraisals and come in the form of bonuses and direct feedback from the President.

Team roles are well defined and clearly identified.  Each team member appears to have clarity on his or her role description and each role requires specific skill sets and knowledge.  Regarding Performance Norms and Interpersonal Relations, team members cite excellence in customer service and respect as top priorities of the team and the need for more communication amongst the team as an improvement that could be made to improve the team structure.

Performance and quality of life are the two dimensions in team effectiveness.  Hard measurements such as productivity, the group’s ability to control or reduce costs, and improve quality need further inquiry.  The group’s quality of life is high.  Each participant gave the same answer of extremely satisfied to the inquiry of job satisfaction.  Also, team members feel the organization is ethical and has integrity and stated things about the organization that make them happy are aspects such as a small team, feeling like a family, and the ability to make decisions and have some autonomy.

Group members receive feedback on the organization’s goals and productivity on a consistent basis, from the President, through individual conversations.

Consultant’s  Diagnosis

Organization Issues

Technology is used in the form of e-mail for communication amongst the team and could be better utilized to improve communication.  Though the team is unable to be in the same location consistently, technology could be used to hold meetings and increase communication and cohesiveness which were cited by the team as top concerns.

There are no apparent structural issues.

Further inquiry into the way team conflict is dealt with is recommended based on input.  There are not currently systems in place that allow for or encourage any issues or problems with the team to be resolved.  The team members are clearly very satisfied with their jobs, which is the reason further inquiry is recommended to assess whether any changes are needed regarding the fact that conflict appears to be largely ignored amongst group members rather than acknowledged and addressed.

Communication could be improved amongst the team.  Group members reported that more communication, clear communication, and respectful styles of communication would improve the productivity of the group as well as the team dynamic.

Group goals and core values are not understood amongst all team members and there is a lack of alignment in both areas amongst team members.  Clearly stated and understood goals and core values are needed for the group.

Case Study Problem Statement

The Anonymous, Incorporated North American distributor team work together in an effective manner.  Each team member knows his or her role and completes the necessary requirements of that role in a manner that contributes to a progressive and positive outcome for the company.  Clear, open, and positive communication is not present and needs improvement.  Further inquiry into whether the lack of a system for conflict resolution should be implemented, as there is currently not an environment where team conflicts are acknowledged or addressed.  Use of available technology could be more progressive for team communication, efficiency, and clarity.  The team does not have a clear and shared understanding of goals or core values.

Effectiveness Criteria

Research shows that effective communication within a virtual or divided team is necessary and an important aspect of partially or fully divided teams (Morgan, Paucar, & Wright, 2014).  Cohesiveness and relationships where trust and connection is present are shown by research to be the result of various methods of communication on teams that are not one hundred percent collocated.

Conflict in teams can be detrimental or can have a positive effect on the team (Bradley, Anderson, Baur, & Klotz, 2015).  High stakes teams such as those where members operate interdependently like the Anonymous, Incorporated team have been shown by research to see positive results stem from dealing with conflict and implementing systems that address it.  Ignoring conflict in teams can result in detrimental outcomes for the goals and mission of the team and organization due to unspoken tension and lack of trust and cohesiveness.

Knowledge sharing, trust, satisfaction, and performance where shown to increase amongst teams that received training in online technologies, according to research studies (Wright, 2015).  The Anonymous, Incorporated team could benefit from online technology training to improve communication amongst the team as well as with the parent company which is in Belgium.

Research by the University of Connecticut School of Business and University of Coimbra, Portugal School of Psychology and Education shows that relationships are stronger when goal clarity and commitment is high and lower levels of negatively affective undertones in teams results in more innovative teams (Peralta, Lopes, Gilson, Lorenca & Pais, 2014).  The research showed teams’ reputations and innovative processes were weakened when there were negative undertones and conversely, team performance is stronger overall when goals are clear and commitment is high.

Research from the University of North Carolina shows varied results regarding conflict on teams where some team members perceive conflict and the other members do not (Sinha, Greer, & Edwards).  In some cases research shows this can cause problems whereas another study conducted in the research resulted in the opposite finding.  The Anonymous, Incorporated team members are all extremely satisfied with their jobs so this subject calls for further inquiry to assess whether any conflict resolution system would improve conditions and should be implemented.

Case Study Purpose Statement

The purpose of this case study group level diagnosis is to identify data that may be the cause for lacking communication and less than optimal use of technology, and develop research questions that may help identify whether a re-engineering of conflict resolution systems or approach is necessary.

Case Study Diagnostic Research Questions

  1. Where are the communication strategies failing, specifically?
  2. What is the cause of the poor communication?
  3. Does the lack of acknowledging and addressing conflict among team members have detrimental effects on team cohesiveness?
  4. What are the predominant ongoing conflicts related to, amongst the team?
  5. Would weekly virtual meetings be welcomed by the team?

Research Methodology

Causal variables were identified with a lack of open and clear communication at the top of the list in terms of priority and quantifying based on team members’ input.  The absence of a conflict identification or resolution strategy, no consistency in understanding of team goals and values, and a lack of progress in the use of technology due to fear of change are causal variables also identified through the use of anonymous surveys and one on one interviews.  Surveys offer the opportunity for team members to provide honest input and feedback anonymously so clear and realistic data is likely to be collected.  A through survey of 20 questions with open ended answers will be useful for the Anonymous, Incorporated team to be able to provide a clear picture of where communication is lacking and identify patterns and trends in mindset and beliefs amongst team members with no fear of being identified by their team members or President.  This offers the opportunity for potentially wonderful outcome based on honest feedback and a realistic understanding of the team’s needs from within.  This strategy will empower the Anonymous, Incorporated team to improve on their already connected, successful team dynamic.  The team will be able to identify where communication improvement is needed and potentially useful.  Interviews with team members interested and available are useful for follow up to make further inquiry into areas that call for more data to be collected.  Identification of potential uses of technology that can help improve communication will be identified through open ended anonymous survey questions.

Organization Interventions

Due to the priority of problems discovered, with a lack of clear, open, and positive communication, I recommend a Process Intervention with my role as Organization Development Consultant to be helping the group assess their human processes with a focus on communication (Cummings, 2014).  The goal of a Process Intervention is to help a group help themselves.  The team at Anonymous, Incorporated are doing well and are successful as well as satisfied so empowering them to help themselves assess what may be lacking regarding communication and help themselves to find the improvement will achieve potentially long term change.  The Johari Window is one type of Process Intervention I recommend.  The Anonymous, Incorporated team is relatively small having 8 members and using the Johari Window intervention will assist each individual team member to better understand his or herself and identify each of the following based on the four quandrants of the Johari Window: issues know to self, issues known to self and others, issues know to others but not self, and issues unknown to self and others.  This will be the foundation on which we will build the ability to assess where the communication is lacking and why, as well as be able to improve communication.

I also recommend using the team building checklist for the group intervention to help quantify the areas where team members believe there are problems and help to build solutions.

My role as Organization Development Consultant will be to facilitate the interventions and to empower the team to assess themselves and identify and implement the solutions they discover that will best suit their needs.

Diagnosis Organization’s Readiness for Change

The team members of Anonymous, Incorporated are happy with leadership and having a relationship where consistent feedback is provided as well as a leader who values his team and makes that known through actions and individual interactions.  Individuals provided information that indicates they are flexible and open to change while some team members stated that they felt other team members were not ready for change, specifically in relation to utilizing progressive technology to create better communication and improve the team’s performance.

The strong leadership and individual relationships where each team member fills a specific and necessary role appears to have created an environment where team members are open to change and if encouraged by the President all would likely embrace change in areas such as technology and communication strategies.

Though the survey was taken anonymously by team members, there were some that indicated potential resistance to change by one or two team members, specifically related to technology.  The overriding positive attitude by most team members may be adequate to encourage the one or two team members who are resistant and support them in learning about technology and becoming comfortable utilizing new technology so that the resistance is removed once it is understood and the benefits have begun be experienced.

Three lessons learned.

  1. The process of this survey of team members of Anonymous, Incorporated provided insight that conflict may be present amongst team members, but may not require a strategy to acknowledge and resolve the conflict. Members of the Anonymous, Incorporated team identified conflict is present while conveying 100 percent are extremely satisfied with their job.  Conflict does not always mean the team is not successful or that team members are not happy with the job circumstances.
  2. Communication needs vary and this team, though extremely satisfied with their jobs and the organization, feel they have need of improved communication. Some members of this team feel there is poor communication while others stated communication is optimal, and others felt communication is in need of some improvement.  This variation of assessment of quality of communication is an indicator of the need for team members to better understand the needs of each other and work to find a way to make improvements that better serve the team, as a whole.
  3. The lack of consistency amongst team members in identifying and sharing core values and lack of clarity of what goals the team has while maintaining an extremely satisfied status within 100 percent of participants provides an interesting insight and indications for further inquiry into the connection between the two. As studies show in the book Tribal Leadership, having clear and purposeful culture through shared core values is an important key to happiness on a team (Logan, King, & Fischer-Wright, 2008).  The team of Anonymous, Incorporated is made of individuals of specialized skills who each appear to be clear on their specific job and are happy with their jobs while not having clearly identified core values and goals.  Further inquiry into whether a team of people who are specialists at their jobs and are valued by the organization and surrounded by other specialists can be fulfilled without the need for clearly identified core values or goals.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

 

Cummings, T & Worley, C. (2014). Organizational development & change (10 ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning

Logan, D., King, J. P., & Fischer-Wright, H. (2008). Tribal leadership: Leveraging natural groups to build a thriving organization. New York: Collins.

Peralta, C. F., Lopes, P. N., Gilson, L. L., Lourenco, P. R., & Pais, L. (2014). Innovation processes and team effectiveness: The role of goal clarity and commitment, and team affective tone. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 88(1), 80-107. doi:10.1111/joop.12079

Morgan, L., Paucar-Caceres, A., & Wright, G. (2014). Leading Effective Global Virtual Teams: The Consequences of Methods of Communication. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 27(6), 607-624. doi:10.1007/s11213-014-9315-2

Sinha, R., Janardhanan, N. S., Greer, L. L., Conlon, D. E., & Edwards, J. R. (2016). Skewed task conflicts in teams: What happens when a few members see more conflict than the rest? Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(7), 1045-1055. doi:10.1037/apl0000059

Wright, S. L. (2015, October 1). Examining the Impact of Collaboration Technology Training Support on Virtual Team Collaboration Effectiveness. Retrieved January 18, 2017, from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED564624

 

 

 

 

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